China is confronting fresh consequences of the two-child limit in 2018, roughly two years after the latest policy revision. Since the one-child policy was revised, 90 million women have gained the right to have a second child. But experts say that many families are still holding back from having more children because of the high cost of living and the lack of support for new parents.
The government's recent approval of limited adoption programs in select cities has raised hopes among Chinese couples who cannot have children of their own. But critics say this is just a gimmick designed to keep the one-child policy alive while providing a solution for overpopulation.
To date, there are only about 60,000 children available for international adoption. And most countries that allow international adoption also require you to adopt your child from their country. This means that most Chinese babies can't be adopted overseas.
However, some families with access to rich parents or grandparents might be able to pay for their only child's adoption abroad. The government requires such cases to be reviewed by a committee before any adoption can take place, so this option remains open to those who can afford it.
In conclusion, having a second child in China is not easy but possible. The key is to make sure you are ready financially and that you will get support from your family when you need it.
China formally eliminated its one-child policy on January 1, 2016, with the signing into law of a measure enabling all married couples to have a second child in order to deal with an aging population and a decreasing workforce. The new rule allows only one child for most parents, but permits them to file a petition with a family planning agency to obtain permission from state authorities to have a second child. If they are approved, the couple is then free to have another child.
The one-child policy had several important effects for China and its people. First, it reduced China's birth rate and allowed the country to extend its life expectancy. Without the one-child policy, the number of births would have dropped even more than it did. This means that there will be fewer young people to support an aging population.
Additionally, the one-child policy created a huge human capital shortage. With more children being allowed to live, there were also more opportunities available for talent selection. Parents often sent their children to study in top universities or companies when they were still very young so they could get ahead in their careers before the one-child policy came into effect. These children were called "golden children" because they were given special treatment just because they were the only offspring in their family.
The official introduction of the one-child policy in 1980 transformed the mindset throughout the more than three decades it was in place, making single-child households the norm. China has steadily relaxed its birth limitations in recent years; beginning in 2016, all couples can have two children. However, the government has not removed the only-child requirement for parents who want to take advantage of related benefits such as housing loans or access to an additional child allowance.
In fact, the number of only children in China is expected to rise significantly in the coming decade. The government's plan is to increase the average family size to 2.1 children by 2020 - up from 1.5 today. Many parents don't want more than one child because of the cost and time commitment required to raise a child. The government's push to expand the economy and create jobs with increased productivity also contributes to the declining number of children in China.
Only children are less likely to be adopted or placed in foster care because there are already enough other children in the system. This means that fewer adults are available to step into the role of caregiver if one of these children becomes sick or injured, which could lead to increased medical costs down the road.
Many only children feel like they were cheated out of their childhoods. They aren't able to go on vacations with their families or spend time with friends because they are always working with their parents or being tutored.
The Chinese government revised the one-child policy in late 2013, as part of a package of social, economic, and legal reforms, to enable couples to have a second child if one parent, rather than both, is an only child. The change was intended to address the fact that many families had two children because they could not afford not to.
Under the new system, which took effect on January 1, 2014, parents can apply for a permit to bring their child index number (CIEN) up to two if one parent is an only child. The permit allows the couple to have a second child at least three years after the first one was born. For example, if one parent is an only child, then the other must be over 30 years old before they can apply for the permit. If the couple meets this condition, then the government will issue them with a permit.
In addition to this official permit system, there is also a large black market in China where people trade in their CIENs or even sell them completely. This means that some families may have more than two children according to the law but others may have only one. There is no way to know the true number of children born into Chinese families.
In conclusion, China has a law about only having one child but it does not necessarily go enforced.